Derbyshire claimed maximum bowling points to inch closer to promotion but a first Championship century of the season from James Vince and late wickets kept Hampshire in the LV County Championship match at Derby.
Vince scored 114 from 140 balls and shared a stand of 136 with Sean Ervine, who made 61, to pull Hampshire out of trouble after a spell of three wickets for nine runs from Tony Palladino reduced the visitors to 59 for four.
After that partnership was broken they slipped from 226 for five to 272 all out - but their bowlers hit back as Derbyshire closed day one on 50 for three, 222 runs behind.
It was no surprise when the Division Two leaders put Hampshire in on a green pitch and Palladino exploited some early movement to strike twice in the first nine overs.
Michael Carberry edged into his stumps as he tried to leave a ball with only two on the board and then Bilal Shafayat failed to get far enough forward to one that seamed away and was caught at third slip for eight.
Palladino then cut one back to trap Liam Dawson lbw and claim his 55th Championship victim of the season, leaving Hampshire struggling on 26 for three, and Derbyshire were right on top once they removed Jimmy Adams.
The opener had dug in for 21 overs and appeared to have survived the worst of the conditions when he edged Ross Whiteley and was well caught low down at second slip by Usman Khawaja for 20.
But Vince and Irvine responded to the crisis with some attacking strokes and began to dominate as the ball got softer and some of the juice went out of the pitch.
Vince had failed to reach 50 in the Championship this summer but he grew in confidence and reeled off some handsome drives to reach his half-century in only 46 balls.
With Ervine completing his fifty from 74 balls, the fifth-wicket pair were batting with increasing ease until Ervine attempted a reckless reverse sweep at David Wainwright and was bowled.
It was a cheap wicket and Derbyshire got another after Vince had celebrated his hundred, which came when he cover-drove Mark Turner for his 18th four.
Vince had played impressively but he also fell to a loose shot when he slapped a wide half-volley from Whiteley into the hands of short extra cover.
Matthew Bates made 29 and David Balcombe 20 not out but Wainwright eventually wrapped up the innings with two wickets in consecutive balls to finish with three for 29, Palladino taking three for 44.
Derbyshire faced a testing session before the close, though, and they lost three wickets to leave the match in the balance.
Skipper Wayne Madsen was caught behind down the leg side when he gloved James Tomlinson, Paul Borrington was caught at gully off Balcombe and Wes Durston edged Chris Wood to second slip in the penultimate over of an enthralling day.